||Steering systems are designed according to the use requirements of the vehicle. They can be in single or multi-axle designs.
|Principles of steering
||The steering system provides control over direction of travel, good manoeuvrability, smooth recovery from turns, and minimum transmission of road shocks.
||Rack-and-pinion type steering gears are used because they are compact and light-weight, give sharp steering response, and light operation.
|Rack-and-pinion steering system
||The primary components of the rack and pinion steering system are: rubber bellows, pinion, rack, inner ball joint or socket and tie-rod.
|Recirculating ball & nut steering system
||The primary components of the recirculating ball and nut steering system are: pitman arm shaft, idler arm, track rod or center link, tie-rod, tie-rod end and adjustment sleeve.
|Four-wheel steering systems
||4-wheel steering can be mechanical or computer controlled. In mechanical systems there is a direct link between the front and rear steering racks. In hydraulic and electric assisted systems the center shaft is replaced either by hydraulic lines, or by electrical connections that are controlled by control valves or computer monitored sensors.